C++: Accessing Struct Members

C++: Accessing Struct Members

We have discussed about struct in the tutorial: How to group related values of different data types in C++. In this tutorial you are going to learn accessing struct members.

Accessing Struct Members:

In arrays, you access a component by using the array name together with the relative position (index) of the component. The array name and index are separated using square brackets. To access a structure member (component), you use the struct variable name together with the member name; these names are separated by a dot (period). The syntax for accessing a struct member is:

The structVariableName.memberName is just like any other variable. For example, newStudent.courseGrade is a variable of type char, newStudent.firstName is a string variable, and so on. As a result, you can do just about anything with struct members that you normally do with variables. You can, for example, use them in assignment statements or input/output (where permitted) statements.

In C++, the dot (.) is an operator called the member access operator.

Suppose you want to initialize the member GPA of newStudent to 0.0. The following statement accomplishes this task:

Similarly, the statements:

 

store “John” in the member firstName and “Brown” in the member lastName of newStudent.

After the preceding three assignment statements execute, newStudent is as shown below:

struct members

The statement:

reads the next string from the standard input device and stores it in:

newStudent.firstName

The statement:

reads two integer values from the keyboard and stores them in newStudent.testScore and newStudent.programmingScore, respectively.

Suppose that score is a variable of type int. The statement:

assigns the average of newStudent.testScore and newStudent.programmingScore to score.

The following statement determines the course grade and stores it in newStudent.courseGrade:




Assigning Values:

We can assign the value of one struct variable to another struct variable of the same type by using an assignment statement. Suppose that newStudent is as shown in picture below:

Assign struct value

The statement:

copies the contents of newStudent into student. After this assignment statement executes, the values of student are as shown below:

values assigned to struct

In fact, the assignment statement:

is equivalent to the following statements:

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<p>Raza Bayani studies BCE (Bachelor in Computer Engineering) in Poly-technical University of Kabul. He is the CEO of CODEJOW group, a web designer, coder and recently a blogger. Raza thinks, he can help others and also boost-up his own programming skills being on codejow.com.</p>

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